Хэрэв та англи хэлээр ярьдаг орнууд, мөн англи хэлээр хичээлээ заадаг, нэр хүндтэй их сургуулиудад суралцахыг хүсч байвал, танд англи хэлний өндөр чадвар шаардлагатай. Тэгвэл таны англи хэлний чадварыг шалгаж, түвшин тогтоодог хамгийн түгээмэл шалгалт нь АНУ дахь ETS (Educational Testing Service) байгууллагаас дэлхий даяар зохион байгуулдаг TOEFL (The Test of English as a Foreign Language) юм.

TOEFL-ийн шалгалт нь дотроо iBT (Internet-Based TOEFL) , PBT (Paper-Based TOEFL) гэсэн хоёр төрөлтэй бөгөөд монгол хэлээр хөрвүүлбэл iBT нь интернэтэд суурилсан TOEFL, PBT нь цаас суурьтай (шалгалт өгөхдөө цаасан дээр гараар нөхөж бичдэг) TOEFL юм.

Хэрэв та англи хэлээр ярьдаг орны их сургууль, эсвэл англиар хичээл заадаг коллеж, их сургуульд суралцахыг хүсч байвал, iBT-ийг нь өгөх хэрэгтэй. Учир нь, коллеж, их сургуулиуд гол төлөв iBT-ийн оноо шаарддаг. iBT нь тус бүр 0-30 оноо бүхий унших, сонсох, ярих, бичих чадвар гэсэн дөрвөн хэсгээс бүрдэх ба дээд оноо нь 120 юм.

Харин PBT-ийг ямар нэг байгууллагаас хэрэгжүүлж буй үйл ажиллагаа (жишээ нь, байгууллагын тэтгэлэгт хөтөлбөр)-т зориулж авдаг байна. Мөн, интернэтэд суурилсан TOEFL өгөх боломжгүй зарим улсын иргэд iBT-ийн оронд PBT өгч болно (Монгол Улс үүнд хамаардаггүй). PBT нь сонсох чадвар, дүрэм, унших чадвар бүхий гурван хэсэгтэй ба дээд оноо нь 677 юм.

Хэдийгээр iBT, PBT нь агуулгын хувьд нэлээд ялгаатай боловч унших хэсгүүд нь ихээхэн төстэй гэж хэлж болно. Иймд та iBT өгөх гэж байгаа бол PBT-ийн унших хэсгийг ашиглан өөрийгөө бэлдэх бүрэн боломжтой.

iBT, PBT-ийн унших чадварын хэсэгт хэрэгтэй нэгэн чухал мэдлэг нь англи хэлний үгсийн сан юм. iBT, PBT-ийн унших чадвар шалгадаг текстүүд танаас баялаг үгийн сан шаарддаг. Иймд та олон тооны үг цээжлэх хэрэгтэй болно. Ингээд танд тус болох үүднээс TOEFL-ийн шалгалтанд хэрэглэгддэг хамгийн түгээмэл 500 үгийг толилуулж байна.

TOEFL-Д ХЭРЭГЛЭГДДЭГ ХАМГИЙН ТҮГЭЭМЭЛ 500 ҮГ

ABANDON: To give up completely – abandoned the sinking ship.

Synonyms: relinquish, forgo, forsake

ABASH: To lose self-confidence; to confuse, put to shame – abashed before the assembled dignitaries.

Synonyms: fluster, disconcert, discomfit, discompose

Antonym: (adj.) self-possessed

ABDICATE: To give up claim to – abdicated the throne

Synonyms: renounce, abandon, relinquish

ABET: To encourage -or support – treacherously abetted the enemy.

Synonyms: spur, incite

Antonym: deter

ABRIDGE: To shorten – abridged his lengthy speech.

Synonyms: curtail, diminish, retrench

Anthonyms: protract, elongate, amplify

ABROGATE: To abolish or render void – a treaty abrogated by mutual consent.

Synonyms: annul, nullify, rescind, void

ABSTEMIOUS: Moderate in the use of food or drink – abstemiousin his habits.

Synonym: temperate

ACADEMIC: Pertaining to school; theoretical academic interests; an academic discussion, with no practical implications.

Synonym: scholastic

ACCEDE: To agree to -accede to a request.

Synonym: assent

Antonym: demur

ACCELERATE: – To quicken, speed tip – took an accelerated course in order to graduate early.

Synonym: expedite (adj. expeditious)

Antonym: retard

ACCOLADE: An award or salute – a tremendous accolade for a returning hero.

Synonyms: tribute, ovation

ACCORD: Agreement or harmony – in full accord with his view.

Synonyms: concord, concurrence

Antonyms:dissension, discord

ACRIMONIOUS: Sharp or harsh in language or temper – stung by the acrimonious remark.

Synonyms:caustic, acerb, pungent, tart, mordant, acrid; (noun) asperity

Antonyms:suave, affable

ACUMEN: Keenness of mind or insight – showing exceptional business acumen.

Synonyms:perspicacity, discernment, perception

Antonym:obtuseness

ADMONISH (noun: ADMONITION): To warn or find fault gently – admonishing the unruly child.

Synonyms:chide, caution, reprimand, reprehend, reproach

ADVERSARY: (adj.: ADVERSE): An opponent – his adversary in a bitter debate.

Synonym:antagonist

Antonyms:cohort, confederate, ally, accomplice

ADVERSITY: Misfortune – calm in the face of adversity.

Synonyms:affliction, mischance, reverses

AESTHETIC: Pertaining to the beautiful – interested in aesthetic values rather than in purely practical affairs.

AFFABLE: Sociable, courteous, and agreeable in manner a much admired, affable gentleman.

Synonyms: civil, complaisant, benign, gracious, genial, urbane, cordial

Antonyms:curt, brusque, rude, boorish, surly

AFFLUENT: Prosperous, flourishing; copious – a large bequest from an affluent grandfather.

Synonyms:opulent, profuse

Antonyms:destitute, impecunious

AGGRESSIVE (noun: AGGRESSION. an unprovoked attack): self-assertive; attacking, offensive – annoyed people by his aggressive attitude;

Synonyms:bumptious, officious, obtrusive

Antonyms:meek, humble, retiring, diffident

ALACRITY: Eagerness; cheerful promptness – responded to the flattering offer with alacrity.

Synonyms:celerity, briskness, energy, animation

Antonyms:apathy, nonchalance, sluggishness, lethargy, phlegmatism

ALIENATE: To estrange – altenated by his gruff manner.

ALLAY: To calm; to lessen in severity – at ease now that his fears have been allayed.

Synonyms:appease, alleviate, pacify, assuage, abate, mitigate, propitiate, mollify, placate

Antonyms:intensify, aggravate

ALLUDE (noun: ALLUSION): To refer to indirectly – alluded quite subtly to his friend’s misfortune.

Synonyms:insinuate, intimate, imply

Antonyms:refer, cite

ALLURE: To tempt by flattery or an attractive offer – allured by the prospect of a new job.

Synonyms:lure, decoy, inveigle, entice, seduce, wheedle, beguile, cajole

Antonym:repel

AMBIGUOUS: Uncertain, vague, capable of being inter- in more than one way – puzzled by the ambiguous statement.

Synonyms:hazy, obscure, equivocal, dubious, nebulous

Antonyms:explicit, unquestionable

AMENABLE: Obedient; willing to submit – amenable to the suggestion.

Synonyms:tractable, docile, responsive

Antonyms:intractable, refractory, recalcitrant

AMIABLE: Good-natured; friendly – attracted friends by his amiable disposition.

Synonym:complaisant

ANACHRONISM: A thing placed or occurring out of its normal time – A machine gun at the Battle of Yorktown would be an anachronism.

ANALOGY (adj.: ANALOGOUS): A relation between two things shown in the resemblance not of the things themselves but of their characteristics- He indicated points of analogy between the two situations.

Synonyms:correspondence, affinity

Antonym: anomaly (a deviation from the general rule)

ANARCHY: State of confusion or lawlessness – a country brought to utter anarchy by civil war.

Synonyms: chaos, pandemonium

ANIMUS: A feeling of hatred-felt no animus, even against the enemy.

Synonyms: enmity, rancor, malevolence, animosity

Antonym: amity

ANNALS: Historical records – in the annals of literature.

ANONYMOUS: Of unknown authorship-an anonymous publication.

ANTHOLOGY: A collection of choice literary works – an anthology of modern poetry.

ANTITHESIS (adj.: ANTITHETICAL): Contrast; the direct opposite – His selfish attitude seemed to me the antithesis o patriotism.

APATHY (adj.: APATHETIC): Lack of feeling, emotion, or interest – attributed his failure to apathy, rather than lack of ability.

Synonyms: torpor, lethargy, sluggishness, listlessness, languor, lassitude, dispassion; (verb) languish

Antonyms:zeal, animation

APPREHENSIVE (verb: APPREHEND): Fearful – Being unprepared, John is apprehensive of the examination.

APPRISE: To inform -apprisedhis lieutenants of the new situation.

APPROBATION: Approval; praise -a plan that met with hearty approbation.

Synonyms:sanction, commendation

Synonyms:sanction, commendation

Antonym:disapprobation

APT (noun: APTITUDE, APTNESS):

(1) Likely; inclined or disposed – apt to succeed. Synonym: prone

(2) Fit, suitable – an apt remark.

Synonyms: appropriate, felicitous

(3) Skillful, expert – apt at woodcarving.

Synonyms: deft, dextrous, adept. Antonym: inept

ARBITER: A person who has authority to decide matters in dispute – a fair decision rendered by the arbiter.

Synonyms: mediator, arbitrator

ARCHETYPE: An original pattern – copies reproduced from the archetype.

Synonym: prototype

Antonyms: Stereotype, facsimile, replica

ARID: Dry; barren – the arid desert land.

Synonyms. jejune, parched

Antonyms: arable, fertile

ARISTOCRACY: Government by the best people; a privileged class -special privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy.

Synonym: oligarchy

Antonym: democracy

ARMISTICE: A temporary suspension of hostilities. The armistice halted the war.

Synonym: truce

ARTFUL: Sly; crafty – attained his mean objective by artful measures.

Synonyms: cunning, wily, adroit, ingenious, guileful

Antonyms: guileless, ingenuous, artless

ARTICULATE (verb): To speak clearly or distinctly – articulated slowly so that he could not be misunderstood.

(adj.): Capable of speech; distinct, clear – an articulate man, always ready to give his views.

ASCETIC: Rigorously self-denying – pursued the ascetic life of a monk.

Synonyms: austere, abstinent

Antonyms: wanton, self-indulgent

ASKANCE: With distrust – looked askance at the forged signature.

ASSEVERATE: To declare positively; to confirm – asseverated his views with conviction.

Synonyms:assert, avouch, aver, avow, allege

Antonyms:gainsay, controvert, recant, rescind, abjure, disavow

ASSIDUOUS: Industrious – an assiduous worker, toiling long hours.

Synonyms:sedulous, attentive, diligent, indefatigable

Antonyms:indolent, slothful

ASYLUM: A place offering shelter and retreat -found asylum from persecution.

Synonyms:sanctuary, refuge

ATHEIST: One who denies that God exists – The atheist declared, “There is no God.”

Synonyms:infidel, agnostic, skeptic

ATTRIBUTE (verb): Assign –attributed his success to bard work.

Synonym: ascribe

(noun): An inherent quality -Generosity was his outstanding attribute.

AUGMENT: To increase or enlarge – an army augmented by numerous enlistments.

Synonyms: enhance, amplify – Antonyms: abate, curtail

AUSPICIOUS: Indicating a happy outcome – The prospect for this project appears auspicious.

Synonyms:propitious, fortunate

Antonyms:ominous, foreboding

AUTHENTIC: Genuine -proved to be an authentic document.

Synonyms:veritable, bona fide

Antonyms;apocryphal, counterfeit, spurious, bogus

AUTOCRATIC: Despotic – feared by the masses as an autocratic ruler.

Synonym:tyrannical

Antonym:benevolent

AVARICE: Excessive greed – a fortune accumulated by avarice and miserliness.

Synonyms:covetousness, cupidity, avidity

Antonym:magnanimity

AWRY: Unsymmetrical; not straight – the picture, hanging awry on the wall.

Synonym:askew

BANAL: Lacking in freshness, originality, or vigor-bored by his banal remarks.

Synonyms:commonplace, hackneyed, prosaic, trite, stereotyped, vapid

Antonyms:racy, original, vivid

BANEFUL (noun: BANE: poison; source of harm): Destructive, poisonous – a baneful effect, causing serious injury.

Synonyms: deleterious, pernicious, virulent, noxious, toxic

Antonym:beneficent

BANTER: Good-natured teasing or ridicule-The two wits I exchanged banter, to the amusement of the audience.

Synonyms:raillery, chaff

BATON: A stick or staff – The conductor wielded his baton gracefully.

BELIE: To give a false idea of – His gracious manner belled his. evil purpose.

Synonym:misrepresent

BELLICOSE; Inclined to quarrel; warlike – His bellicose attitude often got John into fights.

Synonyms: pugnacious, contentious, disputatious

Antonyms: pacific, conciliatory

BELLIGERENT: Engaged in war – two belligerent nations warring fiercely.

BENEVOLENT: Kindly; charitable – like a benevolent monarch, bestowing many favors.

Synonyms: benign, benignant, gracious, magnanimous

Antonyms: malevolent, malignant

BEREAVE: To deprive or leave desolate by loss – a widow just bereaved of her husband.

BESMIRCH: To soil or dirty – besmirched his opponent’s good name with vile epithets.

Synonyms: stilly, defile, smirch, bespatter

BIASED: Prejudiced – misled by a biased point of view.

Synonyms:bigoted, arbitrary, partial, partisan

Antonyms:disinterested, equitable

BIBLIOPHILE: A lover of books – The bibliophile fingeredthe old book fondly.

Antonym: bibliophobe

BIZARRE: Queer; unusual in appearance- bizarre clothes, outlandish in the extreme.

Synonyms:odd, fantastic, grotesque, eccentric

BLAND: Gentle; polite; agreeable – a bland diet, without irritating foods.

Synonyms: mild, suave (affable or persuasive in manner), soothing, non-irritating

Antonyms: piquant, tart, racy, caustic, acrid, pungent

BLANDISHMENT: A flattering speech or act – attracted people by his blandishments.

BLEMISH (verb): To scar or spoil – Bad associates blemished his character

(noun): A disfigurement, defect – a character without a blemish.

BLIGHT: To ruin or decay – the rotting wheat-, blighted by incessant rain.

Synonyms:wither, blast

BLITHE: Gay and light-hearted in spirit or mood – spread cheer with her blithe spirit.

Synonyms: jocund, merry, joyous

Antonyms: dejected, forlorn, abject

BOG: A swamp – sank into the spongy bog.

Synonyms: morass, fen, quagmire, mire

BOMBASTIC (noun: BOMBAST): High-sounding; pretentious in language – a bombastic speech, inflated with meaningless high-flown words.

Synonyms: ranting, pompous, fustian

BOORISH: Unrefined in speech or manners – exhibited the boorish manners of a backwoodsman.

Synonyms:churlish, uncouth. uncultured, crass

Antonym: suave

BUCOLIC: Pertaining to the country – a bucolic poem de- the joys of the shepherd.

Synonyms:pastoral, rustic, rural

BUFFOON: A clown – acting like a buffoon, full of ludicrous tricks.

Synonym: harlequin

BULWARK:

  1. An embankment used as a fortification – a lofty bulwark for defense.

Synonym: rampart

  1. A person, idea, or object serving as a protection – acted as a bulwark in the fight against crime.

BUMPTIOUS: Obnoxiously conceited or self-assertive – a bumptious monitor, puffed up with his own importance,

Synonyms: aggressive, arrogant, contumelious, overbearing

CABAL: A small group of persons engaged in plotting – a cabal of prominent persons united to overthrow the government.

Synonyms: junto, faction

CACOPHONOUS: Unharmonious sounding – a cacophonous blare of trumpets, noisy and discordant.

Synonyms: dissonant, discordant, blatant, strident, raucous Antonyms: mellifluous, euphonious, dulcet

CADAVEROUS: Corpselike; hence, haggard, pale -His face appeared cadaverous from long imprisonment.

Synonyms: ghastly, gaunt, pallid (noun: pallor), wan, ashen

Antonyms: rubicund, florid

CALLOUS: Unfeeling or insensitive – made callous by long suffering.

Synonyms: insensible, obdurate

CALUMNIATE: To accuse falsely or maliciously in order to injure another’s reputation; slander – calumniated his political opponent by spreading false rumors.

Synonyms: asperse, vilify, defame, scandalize

CANDID (noun: CANDOR): Frank, outspoken; impartial a candid reply that could hardly be more forthright.

Synonyms: artless, ingenuous, unbiased

Antonyms: guileful, evasive

CANTANKEROUS: Ill-natured; quarrelsome – showed a cantankerous and sullen disposition.

Synonyms:petulant, peevish, contentious, pugnacious, testy, choleric, fretful

Antonyms:amiable, affable, equable

CAPRICIOUS: Inclined, through some whim or fancy change the mind, purpose, or actions suddenly – a capricious person, undependable in mood or temper.

Synonyms:fickle, fitful, changeable, erratic, inconstant, crotchety, whimsical, mercurial

Antonyms:steadfast, constant, even-tempered

CAPTIOUS: Quick to find fault about trifles- a captious critic pouncing on slight laws.

Synonyms:hypercritical, carping, carviling, censorious

CARICATURE: A picture or other description of a person which exaggerates ludicrously one or more of his distinctive features – not a realistic portrait but a malicious caricature.

CASTIGATE: To punish or criticize severely – castigated for using improper language.

Synonyms:reprove, upbraid, reprehend, censure, reprimand, chasten

Antonyms:commend, eulogize, laud

CELESTIAL: Pertaining to the sky; heavenly-a celestial pageant of bright stars.

Synonyms:ethereal; (noun) firmament

CHAUVINIST. An extreme patriot-a chauvinist with most pride in his country.

Synonym:jingoist

CHICANERY: Trickery, deception,- practised chicanery all his shady dealings.

Synonyms:duplicity, craft, stratagem, wile, subterfuge

CHRONIC: Continuing a long time; habitual-a. chronic complaint, persisting for years.

Synonyms:persistent, unremitting, inveterate, incessant, constant

Antonyms:intermittent, sporadic, infrequent

CIRCUMSPECT: Cautious – looked about him circumspectly.

Synonyms:prudent, vigilant, discreet, wary

Antonyms:rash, indiscreet, reckless, precipitate, foothardy, temerarious, headstrong

CIRCUMVENT: To gain an advantage by the use of trick to evade by the use of deception; to go around – circumvented thelaw by evasive practices.

Synonyms:thwart, balk, outwit, delude

CIVIL:

  1. Of or having to do with citizens or the state – We I civil duties as well as civil liberties.
  2. Polite, courteous – answered in a civil fashion.

Synonyms: respectful, gracious

CLAMOROUS: Loud and noisy – a clamorous outburst the crowd outside.

Synonyms: vociferous, obstreperous, blatant, raucous, strident

Antonyms: muted, quiet

CLANDESTINE: Secret; stealthy – a clandestine meeting known only to a few.

Synonyms: furtive, covert, surreptitious

Antonyms: overt, manifest, above-board

CLEMENT: Merciful; gentle – a clement judge who tempered justice with leniency.

Synonyms: compassionate, forbearing

Antonyms: relentless, ruthless

COALITION (verb: COALESCE): Alliance; merging of various units into one unit – three parties forming a coalition to rule the country.

Synonyms: amalgamation, consolidation, fusion

COERCION: Compelling a person by physical force or other means to do something against his will – rendered his services without the slightest coercion.

Synonyms: constraint, restraint, impelling

COGENT: Having the force to compel, usually by appealing to reason – persuaded by cogent arguments.

Synonym: persuasive

COLLUSION: Working together secretly for an evil purpose – acted in collusion to overthrow the government.

Synonyms: collaboration, conspiracy, conniving, machination

COMMODIOUS: Roomy – a commodious apartment.

Synonyms: spacious, capacious, ample

COMPATIBLE: Harmonious; able, to get along together parted company because they were not compatible.

Synonyms: congruous, consistent

Antonyms: incongruous, discordant, incompatible

COMPENDIUM (adj.: COMPENDIOUS): A brief summary of the main ideas of a larger work – a compendium of chemistry in a slim volume.

Synonyms: synopsis, digest, precis, abstract, epitome

COMPENSATION: Payment for services – just compensation for his labor.

Synonyms: stipend, remuneration, recompense, emolument

COMPLACENT: Self-satisfied – looked on his own performance with a complacent smile.

Synonym: smug

COMPUNCTION: Regret for wrongdoing – displayed slight compunction for his misdeed.

Synonyms: contrition, penitence, atonement, remorse, qualm

CONCEDE: To yield; to admit as true; to grant – conceded victory to a superior force.

Synonyms: acquiesce, capitulate

CONDIGN: Well-deserved (applied chiefly to punishment) – received condign punishment for his crime.

CONDOLE (noun: CONDOLENCE): To express sympathy with another in sorrow, pain, or misfortune – condoled with each other in their grief.

Synonyms: commiserate, show compassion, solace

CONDONE: To forgive or overlook (an offense) – condoned the deed, in view of the offender’s age.

Synonyms: extenuate, palliate, mitigate, gloss

CONFEDERATE (noun): A person allied with others for a special purpose (frequently a bad one) – joined his confederate in secret enterprise.

Synonyms: collaborator, accomplice

(adj.): United or allied in a conspiracy – two confederate groups hurrying to their rendezvous.

CONGENIAL:

(1) Possessing similar interests and tastes; able to get on well with others – congenial people with similar backgrounds.

Synonym: compatible

(2) Agreeable – congenial to his taste.

CONJECTURE: To guess – Without facts, we can only conjecture about his guilt.

Synonyms: surmise, presume

CONSECRATE:

(1) To set apart as sacred – consecrate the battlefield with a monument to the dead heroes. Synonyms: hallow, sanctify Antonym: desecrate

(2) To devote or dedicate to some aim – consecrated his life to teaching.

CONSENSUS. General agreement – The consensus of the committee was that no action should be taken.

Synonym: accord

CONSTERNATION: Amazement; lack of courage caused by fearful prospect – The threat struck deep consternation into John.

Synonyms: dismay, bewilderment

CONSTRUE (noun: CONSTRUCTION): To interpret, explain the sense of, or analyze – construed the statement to his own advantage.

CONSUMMATE (adj.): Perfect or highly accomplished – achieved with consummate skill.

Antonyms:botched. bungled, inept

(verb): To complete, bring to perfection – consummated the deal without delay.

CONTEMPTUOUS: Expressive of contempt (an emotion involving anger and disgust) – cast a contemptuous look at his subordinate.

Synonyms: supercilious, scornful, disdainful, contumelious

CONVIVIAL: Festive; gay – a convivial party.

Synonyms: jovial, jocund, mirthful

Antonyms: lugubrious, dolorous, mirthless

COPIOUS: Plentiful – shed copious tears at the bad news.

Synonyms. profuse, bountiful, abundant

Antonyms: meager, scant

CORPULENT: Fat – corpulent due to excessive eating.

Synonyms: obese, portly

Antonyms: gaunt, lank, emaciated, peaked

COSMOPOLITAN (noun): One who is at home in all countries – A cosmopolitan can feel at ease anywhere in the world.

(adj.): Free from local prejudices – a world-wide traveler, cosmopolitan in tastes and attitudes.

Synonyms: Catholic

Antonyms: parochial, provincial

COTERIE: A group of people joined by common interests a coterie of select friend.

Synonym: clique

COUNTENANCE (noun): A face – His countenance expressed his complete disgust.

Synonym: visage

(verb): To approve – refused to countenance disrespectful conduct.

Synonym: sanction

CRASS: Coarse and stupid – displayed crass ignorance.

Synonym: gross

CRAVEN (noun): Coward – the deed of a craven, motivated by fear.

Synonym. Poltroon

(adj.): Cowardly – a craven act which shocked the world.

Synonyms: pusillanimous, dastardly.

Antonyms: stalwart, intrepid, valiant, stout-hearted

CREDENCE: Trust or belief – gave little credence to the rumor.

Synonym: conviction

Antonym: skepticism

CREDIBLE: Worthy of belief – a credible story, true to life.

Antonym: incredible

CREDITABLE: Deserving or reflecting Credit or honor – applauded for his creditable performance.

Synonyms: praiseworthy, meritorious, commendable

Antonyms: discreditable, infamous, opprobrious, ignominious

CREDULOUS: Inclined to believe anything; easily imposed upon – a credulous fool whom anyone can dupe.

Synonym: gullible

Antonyms: incredulous, skeptical

CRINGE: To shrink in fear – cringing before superior force.

Synonyms, cower, flinch, fawn, truckle, wince

CRUCIAL: Decisive or critical; difficult – the crucial event that decided the outcome.

CRYPTIC: Containing hidden meaning – a cryptic message, difficult to decipher.

Synonyms: occult, enigmatic

Antonyms: palpable, manifest

CULPABLE: Deserving blame or censure – removed from office for culpable negligence.

Synonyms: censurable, reprehensible

CUMBROUS: Burdensome and clumsy – a cumbrous knapsack, impeding his march.

Synonyms: cumbersome, unwieldy, bulk

CURB: To control, check, or restrain – forcibly curbed the people’s protest.

Synonyms: repress, subdue

CURSORY: Hurried; hence, superficial- Time permitted only a cursory examination.

Antonyms: painstaking, meticulous

CURT: Rudely abrupt -offended by the curt response.

Synonyms: blunt, brusque, bluff

Antonyms: affable, civil

CYNICAL: Sneeringly distrustful of the good motives or conduct of others – belittled the hero with a cynical remark.

Synonyms: sarcastic, surly

DEARTH: Scarcity – a dearth of news, brought about by censorship.

Antonyms: plethora, abundance

DEFERENCE: Submitting to the wishes or judgment of another – yielded out of deference to the old man.

Synonyms: respect, complaisance, veneration

Antonym: recalcitrance

DEITY: A god -The sun was a deity to ancient peoples.

Synonym: divinity

DELECTABLE: Very pleasing – a delectable meal, tastefully prepared.

DELETE: To erase or cancel, take out or remove – deletedan offensive phrase.

Synonyms: expunge, censor, efface, eradicate

DELINEATE: To sketch or portray – striking features, delineated by a master artist.

DELINQUENT (noun): An offender – found to be a delinquent by the court.

(adj.): Failing to fulfill an obligation – too many people who are delinquent in meeting their civic duties.

Synonym: derelict

DELUGE: A great flood; downpour – a spring deluge which caused the river to overflow.

DEMAGOGUE: A leader who tries to stir the passions of people for his own purposes – the mob roused by an unprincipled demagogue.

DEMEANOR: Behavior; bearing – carrying himself with a proud demeanor.

Synonyms: deportment, mien

DEMURE: Affectedly or falsely modest or prim; serious demure as a Victorian maiden.

Synonyms: sedate, staid, decorous, prudish, coy

Antonyms: immodest, frivolous

DENOUNCE (noun: DENUNCIATION): To speak against – denounced by the press as a traitor.

Synonyms: stigmatize, censure, reprehend, castigate

Antonyms: laud, eulogize

DEPLETE: To empty or to use up – depleted the public treasury by vast building programs.

Synonyms: exhaust, drain

Antonyms: replenish; (adj.) replete

DEPLORE: To express sorrow or grief over – a lamentable situation deplored by all parties.

Synonyms: lament, decry, grieve

DEPRAVED: Of low morals; corrupt – a depraved mind, devising evil.

Synonyms: debased, wicked, vicious, perverted

DEPRECATE: To plead or argue against a certain course of action – deprecated theproposal severely.

Synonyms: remonstrate, protest, decry, expostulate

Antonym: sanction

DEPRECIATE: To belittle or speak slightingly of – depreciated John’s acting ability.

Synonyms: disparage, derogate (adj. derogatory)

Antonyms: enhance, magnify, extol, laud, eulogize

DEVASTATION: Widespread ruin – the city left in utter devastation by war.

Synonyms: destruction, desolation

DEVIOUS:

(1) Winding; indirect – took a devious, rather than the direct way home.

Synonym: circuitous

(2) Straying from the right course – used devious means to attain his wicked ends.

Synonyms: crooked, erring

DEVOID: Lacking in; not possessing – a speech devoid ofeven a trace of ill-will.

Synonym: destitute

Antonyms: abounding, prevalent

DEVOUT: Devoted to religious observances – devout in his regularity of attendance at worship.

Synonyms: pious, religious

Antonym: impious

DICTUM: Art authoritative statement; a saying-an imperial dictum demanding instant compliance.

DIDACTIC: Designed to teach, imparting a lesson – a poem with a didactic purpose.

Synonym: pedagogical

DIFFIDENT: Lacking in self-confidence- too diffident to lead a group.

Synonyms: shy, timid, reserved, reticent, retiring

Antonyms:forward, aggressive

DILEMMA: A situation calling for a choice between two equally difficult alternatives; hence, a difficult or perplexing situation – faced with a dilemma defying solution.

Synonyms:predicament, quandary, plight

DILETTANTE: One who dabbles in the fine arts for amusement only and without concentrated study – a doctor by profession, a dilettante in art.

Synonyms:amateur, connoisseur

DISCONCERT: To confuse; to embarrass – disconcerted by his suspicious stare.

Synonyms:perturb, discomfit, discompose, abash, disquiet, fluster

DISCONSOLATE: Depressed; without hope or possibility of consolation – made disconsolate by abject poverty.

Synonyms:inconsolable, dejected

Antonyms:blithesome, carefree

DISCOURSE: To converse or talk; to discuss – discoursed at length on the rise of political parties.

DISCRETE: Separate – two discrete issues, totally unrelated.

DISCURSIVE: Rambling from one subject to another – a discursive letter, covering many topics.

Synonyms:desultory, digressive

DISPARITY (adj.: DISPARATE): Inequality; difference in image, quantity, character, or rank – great disparity between promise and performance.

DISPASSIONATE: Free from feeling or partiality – coldly dispassionate as the chairman of the meeting

Synonyms:palm, impartial

Antonym:partial

DISPATCH (verb): To do speedily; to send off – dispatched with remarkable promptness.

Synonym: expedite

(noun): A speedy performance; the sending off of something – done with all possible dispatch.

Synonyms: celerity, alacrity

DISPEL: To drive away; to scatter – dispelled a doubt that had lingered.

Synonyms:dissipate, disperse, diffuse

DISSENT (noun: DISSENSION): To disagree; to differ in opinion – He dissented violently, rejecting compromise.

DISSOLUTE: Living loosely; unrestrained in conduct or morals – his life wasted by dissolute conduct.

Synonyms:debauched, dissipated, profligate

DISTRAUGHT: Mentally distressed; distracted – distraught by trials and tribulations.

Synonym: harassed

DIVERSE: (verb: DIVERSIFY; noun: DIVISIBILITY): Varied; different – two diverse characters; one candid, the other insincere.

Synonym: multifarious

DIVERTING: Entertaining – a diverting one of the most amusing I’ve ever seen.

DIVULGE: To make public or reveal – refused to divulge his source of information.

Synonyms: disclose, impart

DOGMATIC: Positive in expressing an opinion; asserting an opinion as though it were an undisputed fact – spoken dogmatically, as if the speaker considered himself infallible.

Synonyms: overbearing, opinionated, peremptory, dictatorial

DOLOROUS: Sorrowful; mournful – a dolorous song full of sorrow for past joys.

Synonyms: doleful, lugubrious, grievous

Antonyms: jocund, blithe, mirthful

DYNAMIC: Forceful – possessed dynamic energy, tireless and powerful.

Synonym: energetic

Antonyms: static, inert, dormant, torpid, sluggish, quiescent

ECCLESIASTIC (adj.): Pertaining to the clergy or the church – recognized as an authority in ecclesiastic matters. Antonyms: secular, lay

(noun): A clergyman – an ecclesiastic of liberal views.

EDICT: A public command or proclamation issued by an authority – proclaimed by royal edict.

Synonym: decree

EDIFY: To instruct or uplift, particularly in morals or religion – a story that edifiesthe reader, as well as entertains him

EFFETE: No longer productive; hence, lacking in or, worn out – powerful in ancient days, now an effete civilization.

EGOTISTIC: Conceited – an egotisticperson, flourishing on praise.

Synonyms:egocentric, vain

Antonym:altruistic

EGREGIOUS: Outstandingly bad an egregiousmistake with serious implications.

EJACULATE: To exclaim or utter suddenly – ejaculateda cry of horror.

ELICIT: To draw out – elicitedno response from the audience.

Synonyms:evoke, extract, extort

ELUCIDATE: To make clear; to explain – elucidatedhis theory so that even a schoolboy could understand it.

Synonym:clarify

EMISSARY: A person sent on an errand or mission – delegated his emissary to conclude a pact.

ENGENDER: To cause, produce, or stir up-an act that engenderedgood will.

ENNUI: Boredom; weariness of mind-fell asleep at the meeting from sheer ennui.

ENSUE: To follow or result-Silence ensuedwhen the leader arose to speak.

ENTREAT: To beg earnestly – entreatedthe judge to show mercy.

Synonyms:solicit, supplicate, beseech, implore, importune;

(adj.) importunate, mendicant, suppliant

EPHEMERAL: Very short-lived – an ephemeraljoy, lasting but a day.

Synonyms:fleeting, transitory, transient, evanescent

Antonym:eternal

EPICUREAN (noun):A person devoted to luxurious living and pleasure – an epicurean, seeking to enjoy every meal.

(adj.): Pleasure-loving – His entire existence demonstrated his epicureantastes.

EPIGRAM: A brief pointed saying – a speech full of original epigrams.

Synonyms: maxim proverb, adage

EPITAPH: A tombstone inscription – an epitaphengraved on marble.

EPITHET: A phrase that describes a quality (good or bad) in a person or thing – “Glaring” error is a commonly used epithet.

Synonyms:characterization , appellation

EQUANIMITY (adj.: EQUABLE): Evenness of temper or mind – suffered his cruel fate with equanimity.

Synonyms: serenity, composure, imperturbability, aplomb

ERR (noun: ERRATUM): To be mistaken or go astray – To err is human, to forgive divine.

Synonyms: stray, blunder

ERRATIC: Irresponsible, eccentric; lacking a fixed purpose erratic behavior, reflecting his queer ideas.

ERUDITE: Learned – an erudite person, an editor of many books.

Synonyms: scholarly , knowing

ESOTERIC: Understood by only a select few – an esoteric subject, discussed only by scholars.

Synonyms: abstruse, recondite

EXCEPTIONABLE: Objectionable – exceptionable behavior, universally criticized.

Synonyms:questionable, reprehensible, censurable

Antonym: laudable

EXCULPATE: To free from blame – exculpated by a jury.

Synonyms: vindicate, exonerate, absolve, acquit

Antonyms: arraign, indict, inculpate

EXEMPLARY (noun: EXEMPLAR): Serving as a model; commendable – exemplary conduct approved by all.

Synonyms: illustrative, typical; praiseworthy, laudable

EXODUS: Departure, emigration – the pathetic exodus of refugees from their homeland.

EXOTIC: Strange and foreign – an exotic costume imported from Asia.

EXPATIATE: To speak or write at great length – He expatiated on the subject for two hours.

Synonym: dilate

EXPATRIATE (verb): To banish or exile; to withdraw from one’s country – expatriated for treachery to his country.

(noun): An expatriated person – expatriates who left the United States to live in Paris.

EXPEDIENT (adj.): Convenient in helping to attain some purpose – found it expedient to maintain silence at that moment.

Synonyms: opportune, seasonable

(noun): A means to accomplish something – tried all expedients to achieve a quick result.

EXPLOIT (verb): To use for one’s selfish purpose – refugees exploited by unscrupulous employers.

(noun): A brilliant deed – lauded for his exploits in science.

Synonym: feat

EXPOUND (noun: EXPOSITION): To set forth in detail; to explain – expounded his theory in a learned article.

EXPURGATE: To purify (usually a piece of writing) of offensive material – expurgate all obscenities before the book could be sold.

Synonyms: purge, delete

EXTEMPORANEOUS: Done or spoken on the spur of the moment or without preparation – an extemporaneous speech.

Synonyms: impromptu, offhand

EXTINCT: No longer existing or active – the extinct dinosaur, alive only in history.

Synonym: defunct

Antonym: extant

EXTIRPATE: To root out, destroy totally – extirpated the cause of trouble.

Synonyms: eradicate, exterminate, efface, obliterate

EXTRANEOUS. Not essential; foreign; irrelevant – excluded material extraneous to the subject.

Synonyms: extrinsic, adventitious

Antonyms: germane, intrinsic, inherent, relevant, pertinent

EXULTATION: Great rejoicing – received the good news with exultation.

Synonym: jubilation

FACADE: Front or face, especially of a building – a facade of marble.

FACETIOUS: Given to joking or inappropriate gaiety; said in fun – brightened the evening with his facetious remarks.

Synonyms: jocose, droll, flippant, frivolous

Antonyms: solemn, grave, saturnine

FALLACIOUS (noun: FALLACY): Unsound; misleading; deceptive – led astray by fallacious reasoning and plans.

FALLIBLE: Liable to make mistakes or be deceived – Being human, Tom was naturally fallible.

Antonyms: infallible, unerring

FATHOM: To penetrate and understand – difficult to fathom his mysterious actions.

FATUOUS: Foolish; silly – a fatuous suggestion that struck us as stupid.

Synonyms: inane, vacuous, puerile

Antonyms: judicious, sagacious, sage

FEALTY: Faithfulness – The soldiers were pledged to fealty to their ruler.

Synonyms: allegiance, constancy, fidelity

Antonyms: disloyalty; infidelity, treachery

FEASIBLE: Workable – a feasible plan, proved practical by – previous experience.

Antonym: impracticable

245 FEIGN (noun: FEINT): To pretend – He feigned to be angry, but we saw through his pretense.

Synonyms: dissemble, sham, dissimulate, affect

FELICITY (adj.: FELICITOUS):

(1) A state of happiness – promoted felicity in the nation.

Synonym: bliss

(2) A high ability – lie has a felicity of language, mastery of the well-chosen phrase.

FERVID: Spirited; ardent – a fervid debater, full of emotion.

Synonyms: perfervid, impassioned, zealous, fervent, vehement

FESTOON (noun): A garland of flowers, leaves, etc. hung between two points – the room bright with festoons of Thanksgiving decorations.

(verb): To hang with festoons – a room festooned with spring flowers.

FETISH.

(1) Something that is believed to have magical powers – savages worshipping the fetish in a ceremonial dance.

Synonym: charm, talisman, amulet

(2) An object of unreasoning devotion and worship – Photography, begun as a hobby, became a fetish.

FIASCO: A ludicrous and complete failure – all his glorious plans ending in a fiasco.

Synonym: debacle

FICTITIOUS: Unreal; made-up – used a fictitious name to avoid being recognized.

Synonym: fabricated

FLACCID: Lacking firmness – muscles grown flaccid after the illness.

Synonyms: flabby, limp

FLAGRANT: Outstandingly bad – condemned for his flagrant abuse of power.

Synonyms: glaring, scandalous, notorious, conspicuous, gross

FLAMBOYANT: Elaborately showy – written in a flamboyant, style, full of highly decorative imagery.

Synonyms: florid, ornate, resplendent, embellished, garish, gaudy, gorgeous, rococo

Antonym: somber

FLAUNT: Display or wave boastfully – flaunted the excellent report before his delighted parents.

FLEETING: Passing swiftly -the fleeting hours of happiness

Synonyms: transitory, fugitive

FLUCTUATE: To waver from one course to another; to vary irregularly – his mood fluctuating with every hour.

Synonyms: oscillate, vacillate, undulate, sway

FORBEAR (noun: FORBEARANCE): To exercise self control; to keep from – forbearing to shoot the animal despite temptation.

Synonyms: restrain, abstain

FORENSIC: Pertaining to public discussion or law courts – a lawyer gifted in forensic debate.

Synonyms: rhetorical, oratorical

FORTUITOUS: Accidental – a fortuitous meeting with a friend in need.

Synonyms: casual, incidental, adventitious, random

FRACAS: A disorderly quarrel – A fracas broke up the meeting.

Synonyms: brawl, altercation, fray, wrangle, imbroglio

FRUSTRATE: To prevent (the attainment of an object); to defeat or render ineffectual – His scholastic progress was frustrated by a serious illness.

Synonyms: balk, thwart, foil, baffle, obstruct, discomfit

Antonym: abet

FULSOME: Disgustingly excessive – nauseated by fulsome praise.

GARNISH: To trim or decorate – dishes garnished attractively with greens.

Synonyms: adorn, deck

GENEALOGY: A record of a person’s or a family’s ancestors or relatives – an interesting genealogy, including saints and sinners.

Synonym: lineage

GENESIS: Origin – chemistry, which had its genesis in alchemy.

Synonym: inception

GESTICULATE: To make gestures, or indicate feelings by. motions – gesticulated wildly to show his distress.

GHASTLY: Horrible, deathlike – a ghastly disaster which shocked the world.

Synonyms: gruesome, grisly, pallid, macabre, grim, lurid

GIBE (variant spelling: JIBE): To laugh at; to utter with scorn – gibed at his enemy mercilessly.

Synonyms: mock, sneer, jeer, scoff, flout, deride (adj.: derisive), rail, taunt

GLIB: Smooth-spoken, fluent – a glib liar, distorting the truth effortlessly.

GLUTTONOUS (noun. GLUTTON; verb: GLUT): Inclined to cat to excess – gulped down his food in gluttonous fashion.

Synonyms:voracious, intemperate

GOSSAMER (noun): A very thin gauzelike fabric or structure – a poem so delicate that it seemed an unreal gossamer.

(adj.): Thin and light – the gossamer wings of a dragon fly.

Synonyms: diaphanous, flimsy, gauzelike Antonyms: substantial, ponderous

GREGARIOUS: Habitually fond of associating in a company or herd – gregarious sheep; that gregarious animal, man.

Antonyms:lone, aloof

GRIMACE: A distortion of the face to express an attitude or feeling – a grimace that was more expressive than words.

HAIL: To greet – The crowd hailed the returning hero.

Synonyms: accost, salute

HARANGUE (verb): To deliver a long. noisy speech- harangued the multitude.

Synonyms: rant, declaim

(noun): A loud, tiresome speech – an empty harangue which bored his audience.

Synonym: tirade

HARBINGER, A forerunner; ail announcer – the robin, harbinger of spring.

Synonyms:precursor, herald

HAUGHTY: Proud; looking down with contempt on others – dismissed the messenger in a haughty manner.

HEEDLESS: Thoughtless; taking little care – rushed into battle, heedless of the danger.

Synonyms: inadvertent, rash, incautious

Antonyms: prudent, circumspect, mindful, wary

HEINOUS: Wicked; hateful – committed a heinous crime.

Synonyms: atrocious, outrageous, monstrous, odious, nefarious, abominable

HERESY: An opinion held in opposition to the traditional view – a view condemned as heresy.

Synonym: heterodoxy

Antonym: orthodoxy

HIATUS: A gap or vacancy; break -left a hiatus on the page where he erased a sentence.

Synonym:breach

HISTRIONIC: Pertaining to the theater; designed for show – broke into histrionic laughter, hollow and insincere.

Synonyms: dramatic, theatrical

HOAX (noun): A trick or deception; a practical joke – played a hoax upon the credulous public.

Synonym: canard

(verb): To play a trick on; to deceive – He hoaxed the crowd completely with his disguise.

HOMONYM: Two words having the same sound but different meanings – confusing such homonyms as mail add male.

HOVEL: A dirty or wretched dwelling – born in a hovel, died in a mansion.

HYPERBOLE: Extravagant exaggeration for effect – An example of hyperbole: “There are a million objections to the project.”

Synonym: overstatement

Antonym: understatement

HYPOTHESIS: An assumption made for the sake of argument – worked from a fantastic hypothesis.

Synonym: supposition

IDIOSYNCRASY: A. personal peculiarity – Wearing white was one of Whistler’s idiosyncrasies.

Synonyms: eccentricity, foible, mannerism, crotchet, aberration, quirk, singularity

IGNOMINIOUS (noun: IGNOMINY): Incurring public disgrace – suffered an ignominious descent from political power.

Synonyms: infamous, degrading, opprobrious, odious

Antonyms: illustrious, renowned, preeminent

IMMACULATE: Spotless; pure – an immaculate reputation.

Synonyms: undefiled, unsullied, unblemished, untarnished

Antonyms: defiled, sullied, blemished

IMMINENT: Likely to occur soon – stood in imminent peril.

Synonym: impending

IMMUNE (verb: IMMUNIZE): Exempt from; protected from – immune from taxation.

Synonym : unsusceptible

IMPALE: To pierce through with a pointed instrument – impaled a spider to the wall.

IMPEACH:

(1) To accuse (a public official) of wrongdoing – impeached the judge for accepting a bribe.

Synonym: arraign

(2) To cast discredit upon – impeached his motives.

Synonyms: call in question, discredit

IMPECCABLE: Faultless – performed with impeccable skill.

Synonyms: consummate, irreproachable, unerring, infallible

Antonyms: culpable, fallible

IMPERVIOUS: Incapable of being penetrated – a mind impervious to new ideas.

Synonyms: impermeable, impenetrable

Antonyms: permeable, pervasive

IMPLACABLE: Incapable of being soothed, made peaceful, or forgiving – implacable resentment.

Synonyms: unrelenting, inexorable, unappeasable

Antonyms: placable, forbearing

IMPLICIT:

(1) Implied but not clearly expressed – an implicit agreement.

(2) Unquestioning – implicit confidence.

Synonyms: tacit, implied

Antonym: explicit

IMPORT (noun): Meaning; significance or importance – a matter of great import.

Synonyms: purport, moment, consequence

IMPOSTOR (noun: IMPOSTURE): One who pretends to be what he is notunmasked as an impostor.

Synonyms: quack, mountebank, charlatan, bogus, fraud

IMPRECATION: A curse – hurled imprecations at those who would not listen to him.

Synonyms: execration, malediction, anathema

Antonyms: benediction, benison

IMPREGNABLE: Unconquerable – an impregnable fortress.

Synonym: invincible

Antonym: vulnerable

IMPROPRIETY: Improper act, manners, or expression – guilty of impropriety in public office.

Synonyms: indecency, indecorum

Antonym: amenity

IMPROVIDENT: Lacking in thrift; not providing for future needs – an improvident spender.

Synonyms: prodigal, shiftless

IMPUGN: To attack or criticize as false; to call in question – impugned his honesty.

INCARCERATE: To imprison – crushed his opponents by incarcerating them.

Synonyms: intern, immure

Antonyms: emancipate, enfranchise

INCISIVE: Cutting, penetrating – incisive criticism.

Synonyms: sarcastic, mordant, trenchant, acute

INCOGNITO. With one’s identity concealed – traveled incognito.

INCONTROVERTIBLE: Indisputable – incontrovertible evidence.

Synonyms: irrefutable, -indubitable

INCREMENT: An increase – a salary increment.

Synonym: accrual

INCUMBENT (noun): An officeholder – the incumbent in an election.

(adj.): Obligatory – felt it incumbent to reply.

Synonyms: – mandatory, imperative

INDEFATIGABLE: Untiring – an indefatigable worker.

Synonyms:unflagging, unremitting, persevering

INDIGENOUS: Native – Rice is indigenous to China.

Synonyms:innate, inborn

INDOOMITABLE: Stubborn in determination not to be subdued – indomitable courage.

Synonyms:insuperable, irrepressible, invincible, unyielding

Antonyms:tractable, amenable, docile, submissive

INFERENCE: A conclusion reached by reasoning from data or premises – an inference drawn from his remarks.

Synonyms:deduction, implication

INGENIOUS: Demonstrating originality, skill, or resourcefulness – an ingenious device.

Synonyms:dextrous, inventive, adroit

Antonyms:maladroit, gauche

INGENUOUS: Simple and straightforward; concealing nothing – an ingenuous plan that anyone could see through.

Synonyms: unsophisticated, naive, candid

Antonym: sophisticated

INGRATIATE: To win another’s favor or good opinion tried to ingratiate himself with the politician.

INHIBIT: To check or hinder – inhibited his friend from a foolhardy course.

Synonyms:restrain, curb

Antonym: promote

INNOCUOUS: Harmless; inoffensive – an innocuous remark, but it enraged him.

INNUENDO: An indirect reference or suggestion (frequently derogatory) – conveyed his idea by innuendo.

Synonyms: (verb) intimate, insinuate

INORDINATE: Excessive – spoiled by inordinate praise.

Synonyms: immoderate, intemperate, extravagant

INSATIABLE: Unable to be satisfied – insatiable greed

Synonyms. unappeasable, unquenchable, insatiate

INSCRUTABLE: Incapable of interpretation or understanding – the inscrutable smile of the Mona Lisa.

Synonyms: unfathomable, cryptic, enigmatic

INSIDIOUS: Working secretly or slyly – that insidious disease, cancer.

Synonyms: wily, crafty, furtive, treacherous, artful, guileful perfidious

INSTIGATE: To stir tip – instigated discontent among the soldiers.

Synonyms: foment, incite

INTEGRITY: Honesty, moral soundness – a man of proved integrity.

Synonyms: probity, uprightness, incorruptibility

INVEIGH (noun-. INVECTIVE): To speak angrily or bitterly-inveighed against economic discrimination.

Synonyms: rail, denounce, fulminate, vituperate

IRASCIBLE: Easily angered – Even petty things made Peter irascible.

Synonyms: choleric, petulant, testy, peevish, splenetic, touchy

Antonyms: placid, equable

IRE: Anger -aroused his ire.

Synonyms: resentment; (adj.) irate, incensed

IRKSOME: Tedious, monotonous – an irksome chore that no one liked.

ITINERANT: Traveling about; wandering – an itinerant salesman.

Synonym: nomadic

JARGON: Confused, unintelligible, meaningless talk; special vocabulary used only by members of a group or trade – Variety, a newspaper written in theatrical jargon.

Synonyms: gibberish, argot, cant

JAUNTY: Having an air of easy carelessness or liveliness – walked with a jaunty step.

Synonyms: sprightly, airy, gay, nonchalant, debonair

Antonyms: somber, staid

JEOPARDY: Danger – His life was in jeopardy.

Synonyms: hazard, peril

JETTISON: To throw overboard (as cargo); to throw off (as a burden or something in the way )- jettisoned their old candidate as a political liability.

JUDICIOUS: Wise; using or exhibiting good judgment – a well-chosen plan, termed judicious by all.

Synonyms:discreet, politic, discerning

KALEIDOSCOPIC: Constantly changing or varying in pattern or scenes – kaleidoscopic views of New York.

KEN: Range of sight or understanding – something beyond our ken.

Synonym: insight

LABYRINTH (adj.: LABYRINTHINE): A structure or intricate passage out of which it is difficult to find one’s way (also applied to spiritual and intellectual complexities) – confused by a labyrinth of intellectual discussions.

Synonym:maze

LACHRYMOSE: Causing or given to shedding tears – a lachrymose tragedy.

LACONIC: Saying much in few words – a laconic reply that spoke volumes.

Synonyms:concise, pithy, terse, succinct, taciturn, reticent

Antonyms:verbose, prolix, redundant, diffuse, tautological, turgid, garrulous, voluble

LARCENY: Theft – indicted for grand larceny.

LATENT: Hidden; present but not fully developed – latent talent that time will reveal.

Synonyms:dormant, quiescent, covert, potential

Antonyms:apparent, patent

LAVISH:

(1) Profuse or generous – lavish in praise.

Synonyms: ample, superabundant

(2) Given to extravagance – a lavish spender.

Synonyms: prodigal, munificent, magnanimous.

Antonyms: parsimonious, niggardly, frugal, penurious

LETHAL: Deadly – a lethal weapon.

Synonyms: mortal, fatal

LONGEVITY: Prolonged duration of life – a country remarkable for the longevity of its inhabitants.

LOW: To bellow softly like cattle – the lowing herd in the meadow.

Synonym: moo

LUCID: Clear; transparent; easily understood – a lucid explanation of a difficult text.

Synonyms: pellucid, perspicuous, intelligible, limpid, luminous, translucent

Antonyms: abstruse, obscure

LUDICROUS: Ridiculous; producing laughter – a ludicrous remark that set them all to roaring.

Synonyms: mirthful, droll, comical, absurd

Antonyms: doleful, lugubrious, dismal

LUMINARY: An eminent person; a celestial body – the platform graced by a number of luminaries.

MACHIAVELLIAN: Sacrificing moral principles in order to attain power; politically cunning; crafty – a machiavellian design, wickedly contrived.

Synonym: unscrupulous

MALICIOUS (noun: MALICE): Bearing, or acting with, deliberate ill-will or spite – hurting with malicious intent.

Synonyms:rancorous, malignant, malevolent, virulent, vindictive

Antonym: benign

MASQUERADE (verb): To assume a deceptive appearance or character – a thief masquerading as an honest man.

Synonyms: dissemble, feign

(noun): A disguise; a group of people in disguise or fancy costumes – a masquerade so perfect no one could guess his identity.

MAUDLIN: Sentimental to the point of tears – turned maudlin at the mention of his lost dog.

Synonym : mawkish, lachrymose

MEANDER: To walk about (or talk) aimlessly; to wind about (as a stream) – meandered through the town, looking into shop windows.

Synonym: ramble

MEDIOCRE: Average in quality – a mediocre performance, unworthy of his talents.

MERCENARY: Acting solely from a consideration of reward or profit – actuated by a mercenary motive.

Synonym: venal

MERETRICIOUS: Attracting in a false, cheap, or showy manner- a meretricious beauty that is too flashy to be real.

Synonyms:tawdry, specious

METICULOUS: Fussy about minute details – took meticulous pains with his composition.

Synonyms:fastidious, punctilious, overscrupulous, finical, methodical

Antonyms:desultory, perfunctory, slovenly

METTLE (adj.: METTLESOME: high-spirited ): Disposition; spirit; courage – His mettle was tried in battle.

Idiom: to be on one’s mettle (meaning, “ready to do one’s best”)

Synonyms:temperament, ardor

MICROCOSM: A little world, or a universe in miniature this village, a microcosm of the great outside world.

Antonym:macrocosm (world on a large scale)

MIMIC: To make fun of or copy by imitating – mimicked the comedian’s gestures.

MISANTHROPIC (noun: MISANTHROPE): Hating or distrusting mankind – condemned for his misanthropic views.

Antonyms: philanthropic, altruistic

MISNOMER: A name or term that describes wrongly – To call him a brave man is really a misnomer.

MONOLOGUE: A speech by one person – The actor gave his views in a dramatic monologue.

Synonym:soliloquy

Antonyms:colloquy (adj. colloquial): conversation between two or more persons; dialogue: conversation between two persons

MOROSE: Gloomy; ill-humored – shunned because of his morose temper.

Synonyms: sulky, crabbed, sullen, splenetic, saturnine

Antonyms: blithe, genial

MOTLEY: Of various colors; of mixed ingredients – a motley costume; a motley crowd.

Synonyms: checkered (referring to a varied career), piebald, variegated, diverse, heterogeneous

Antonym: homogeneous

MOTTLED: Spotted or streaked with varied colors – a mottled pony.

Synonyms:blotched, dappled

MUNDANE: Of, or pertaining to, the world, as contrasted with the spirit – mundane affairs.

Synonyms:earthly, terrestrial, secular, temporal

MURKY: Dark; cloudy – a murky cavern.

Synonyms:dismal, tenebrous, fuliginous

Antonyms:resplendent, glowing, lustrous, luminous, fulgent, coruscating

MUTABLE: Given to frequent change in nature, mood, or form- mutable inmood as a spring wind.

Synonyms:vacillating, fickle, inconstant, fitful, mercurial, wavering, capricious

Antonyms:constant, steady

MYRIAD: Innumerable – the myriad stars in the heavens.

NAUTICAL: Pertaining to ships or navigation – a nautical career.

Synonyms: marine, naval, maritime

NETTLE: To irritate or provoke – nettled by his critics.

Synonyms: vex, pique, goad

NOCTURNAL: Pertaining to, or occurring in, the night – awakened by the sounds of a nocturnal prowler.

Antonym: diurnal

NOISOME: Foul-smelling; harmful-the swamp gave off a noisome odor.

Synonyms: malodorous, fetid, disgusting; noxious, deleterious

Antonym: salubrious

NONCHALANT: Unmoved or indifferent; casual – reacted to the news in a nonchalant manner.

Synonym: apathetic

Antonyms: enthusiastic, zealous

NOSTALGIA: Homesickness – felt nostalgia for the oldhomestead.

NOTORIOUS: Widely known (in a bad sense) – a notorious gambler.

NOVICE: A beginner – conducted himself in politics like a novice.

Synonyms:tyro, neophyte

Antonym:virtuoso

OBDURATE: Hard-hearted; stubborn – an obdurate, unrepentant criminal.

Synonyms:adamant, unyielding, inflexible

Antonyms:submissive, docile, compliant

OBLIVIOUS (noun: OBLIVION): Forgetful; absent-minded – walking oblivious of his surroundings.

Synonyms:unmindful, heedless, abstracted

OBSESSION: A persistent feeling, idea, activity, etc., which dominates a person; the state of being exclusively preoccupied by a fixed idea – Now that he has learned bowling, it has become his obsession.

Synonyms:mania, infatuation (a foolish passion), monomania

OBSOLETE: No longer in use – an obsolete word, not even included by most dictionaries.

Synonyms:archaic, antiquated

OBTRUSIVE (verb: OBTRUDE): Thrusting oneself or itself into undue prominence – made himself obnoxiously obtrusive.

Synonyms:intrusive, aggressive

OBVIATE: To prevent, dispose of, or make unnecessary by appropriate actions – an act which obviated all objections.

Synonyms:preclude, forestall

OMNIPOTENT: All-powerful – an omnipotent despot.

ONUS: Burden; duty; obligation – bore the onus of his difficult office creditably.

OSTENSIBLE: Apparent; pretended – his ostensible, though not actual, purpose.

Synonyms:professed, plausible (that is, appearing true, reasonable, or fair), specious

OSTRACIZE: To banish; to exclude from public favor or privileges – a former premier ostracized by popular vote.

Synonym: outlaw

PANACEA: A remedy for all ills – seeking a panacea to cure our social troubles.

Synonym: nostrum

PANEGYRIC: A speech or writing of extravagant praise – delivered a panegyric at his friend’s testimonial dinner.

Synonyms:eulogy, adulation, tribute, laudation (adj. laudatory), encomium

Antonyms:censure, disparagement, derogation, castigation, depreciation

PARADOX: A self -contradictory statement; something ‘that appears to be absurd and yet may be true -“Life is too important a matter to he taken seriously.” – a paradox by Oscar Wilde.

Synonym: anomaly

PARAPHRASE: To restate the meaning of a passage in other words – paraphrased the poem in a few lines of prose.

PARODY (noun): A humorous imitation of an author’s style and mannerisms – wrote a parody on Kipling’s “Gunga Din.”

Synonym: burlesque

(verb): To write a parody – parodied the popular authors of the (lay to his audience’s amusement.

Synonym: Mimic

PECCADILLO: A petty fault-possesses one peccadillo among his many virtues.

Synonyms: frailty, foible, flaw, blemish

PECUNIARY: Pertaining to money – involved in pecuniary difficulties.

Synonyms; financial, fiscal, monetary

PEDANT (adj.: PEDANTIC): One whoproudly showsoffhislearning or whooverrates his knowledge – like a pedant glorying in his scholarly trifles.

PENSIVE: Sadly thoughtful – softly sang his pensive song.

Synonyms: reflective, meditative, contemplative, musing

PEREMPTORY: Positive in expressing an opinion – gave a peremptory judgment.

Synonyms:decisive, resolute, imperious, positive, dogmatic

Antonyms:indecisive, tentative

PERTINACIOUS: Clinging doggedly to an opinion or purpose – pertinacious in his efforts.

Synonyms:obdurate, tenacious, persistent, persevering, intractable, inflexible

PERUSE: To read carefully – perused the important letter.

PERVERSE: Willfully bent on doing the wrong thing – a perverse lad, always disobeying his parents.

Synonyms:headstrong, froward, refractory, wayward, fractious

PETRIFY: To paralyze with horror, fear, or surprise – petrified by the enemy bombardment.

Synonyms:stupefy, stun, bewilder, amaze

PLAGIARISM. Adopting and reproducing, without acknowledgment, the writings or ideas of another and passing them off as one’s own – denied the charge of deliberate plagiarism.

PLATITUDE: A dull and commonplace remark – bored people by his pompous phrases and platitudes.

Synonyms:bromide, truism, axiom

PLEBEIAN: Pertaining to the common people; hence, common or vulgar – plebeian in his tastes and outlook.

Antonyms:patrician, aristocratic

PLEBISCITE. A direct vote by the people – The decision to confederate was ratified by plebiscite.

POIGNANT:

(1) Gripping and moving the feelings powerfully – a poignant grief.

(2) Piercing, biting, pointed – a poignant cry; poignant wit.

PONDEROUS: Very heavy; clumsy; dull – a ponderous speech, extremely boring.

PRECARIOUS: Uncertain or risky – earning a precarious livelihood, providing no luxuries.

PRECIPITOUS:

(1) Very steep – a precipitous cliff.

(2) Descending rapidly – a precipitous decline in popularity.

PRECOCIOUS: Remarkable for early mental development a precocious genius.

PREDATORY:

(1) Inclined to plunder or rob; – predatory bands roaming the countryside.

(2) Preying on, others – predatory animals prowling about.

Synonyms: predacious, looting, pillaging

PREDILECTION: Partiality or preference for; a favorable opinion arrived at beforehand – a predilection for theatricals.

Synonyms: prepossession, proclivity, predisposition, penchant

Antonyms: aversion, antipathy, repugnance

PRELUDE: An introduction, forerunner, or preliminary step – a short prelude to the play.

Synonyms: preface, prologue, preamble.

Antonym: epilogue

PREROGATIVE: A privilege or power attaching to a position – It is a woman’s prerogative to refuse to tell her age.

Synonym: license

PRESTIGE: Esteem or influence accorded for recognized achievements or reputation – As Senator he enjoyed great prestige.

Synonym: distinction

415, PRECOCIOUS: Remarkable for early mental development a precocious genius.

PREDATORY:

(1) Inclined to plunder or rob; – predatory bands roaming the countryside.

(2) Preying on, others – predatory animals prowling about.

Synonyms: predacious, looting, pillaging

PREDILECTION: Partiality or pr eference for; a favorable opinion arrived at beforehand – a predilection for theatricals.

Synonyms: prepossession, proclivity, predisposition, penchant

Antonyms: aversion, antipathy, repugnance

PRELUDE: An introduction, forerunner, or preliminary step – a short prelude to the play.

Synonyms: Preface, prologue. Preamble

Antonym: epilogue

PREROGATIVE: A privilege or power attaching to a position – It is a woman’s prerogative to refuse to tell her age.

Synonym: license

PRESTIGE: Esteem or influence accorded for recognized achievements or reputation – As Senator he enjoyed great prestige.

Synonym: distinction

PRESUMPTION:

(1) Something taken for granted – acted on a reasonable presumption.

(2) Going beyond proper bounds; impudent boldness – His question was downright presumption.

Synonyms: effrontery, forwardness, arrogance

PREVARICATE: To disguise or conceal the truth to lie – prevaricated in order to avoid detection.

Synonyms: quibble, equivocate; (adj.) mendacious

Antonyms: (noun) veracity, verity; (adj.) forthright

PROCRASTINATE: To postpone or put off to another time – missed his opportunity by procrastinating too long.

Synonyms: defer, delay

PROGNOSTICATE (noun: PROGNOSIS): To forecast – The Weather Bureau prognosticates daily.

Synonyms:presage, portend, augur, forebode

PROLETARIAT: The wage-earning class – a truckman, humble member of the proletariat.

PROMONTORY: A cliff – an imposing promontory along the coast.

Synonyms:headland, precipice

PROMULGATE: To publish or proclaim; to spread abroad The President promulgated a decree.

Synonym:disseminate

PROTUBERANT: Bulging or swelling out – a protuberant jaw.

Antonyms:receding, recessive

PROVISIONAL: Temporary; for the time being – a provisional plan until a permanent decision is reached.

Synonym:tentative

PROXIMITY: Nearness-worked in close proximity to his home.

Synonyms :propinquity, vicinity

Antonym:remoteness

PSEUDONYM: A false name assumed by a writer – concealed his identity by a pseudonym.

Synonyms:alias, pen name, nom de plume

PUNITIVE: Inflicting, or concerned with, punishment – took punitive measures against deserters.

QUASH: To crush; to render void – quashed a rebellion; quashed an indictment.

Synonyms:suppress, extinguish, quell; annul

QUERULOUS: Given to fault-finding and complaining – Her querulous nature estranged many people.

Synonyms:fretful, whining, captious, carping, peevish, petulant

Antonym: affable

QUIXOTIC: Extravagantly romantic or idealistic; highly impractical – a quixotic scheme that can never materialize.

Synonyms:utopian, visionary, fantastic

RACONTEUR: A skilled storyteller – held spellbound by a superb raconteur.

RADICAL (noun): One who advocates extreme basic changes – The reform movement was led by a radical.

(adj.): Thorough, extreme – radical measures adopted to meet the emergency.

Antonym:(noun and adj.) conservative

RAMIFICATION: A branching; sub-division – studied the subject in all its ramifications.

RAZE: To tear down completely- razed the old building.

Synonyms:level

Antonym:rear

RECAPITULATE: To restate in a brief, concise form; to sum up – recapitulated the main ideas.

RECIPROCAL: Mutual; done in return for something received – held each other in reciprocal esteem.

RECUMBENT: Lying down; leaning back or down – resting in a recumbent position.

REDOLENT:

(1) Fragrant – a room redolent of roses.

Synonym: aromatic

(2) Reminiscent of – redolent of olden times.

REDOUBTABLE: Commanding fear or respect – cringing before a redoubtable enemy.

Synonym:formidable

REFUTE: To prove incorrect or false-refuted his opponent’s argument.

Synonyms:rebut, confute

Antonyms: substantiate, confirm, corroborate

REITERATE: Repeat (several times) – reiterated his story once more.

REMUNERATIVE: Profitable – a remunerative job.

Synonyms: lucrative, gainful

RENEGADE: One who forsakes political or party principles or his religious faith – a renegade from his former allegiance.

Synonyms: turncoat, apostate, recreant, traitor

REPRISAL: Injury inflicted in turn for one received – took action in reprisal against his neighbor.

Synonym: retaliation

RESENTMENT: Feeling of displeasure or indignation resulting from mistreatment or abuse – showed resentment at what he considered an unwarranted insult.

Synonyms: umbrage, dudgeon, animosity

RESILIENT: Elastic; light-hearted; possessing power of recovery – a resilient Spirit, refusing to admit defeat.

Synonyms: flexible, pliable, supple, limber

RESPITE:

(1) Temporary deferment or cessation of work or pain – a brief respite from labor.

Synonym: surcease

(2) A temporary delay in the execution of -a sentence – granted the doom man a temporary respite.

Synonym: reprieve

RETRIBUTION: The reward or punishment exacted for an injury, wickedness, or other action – suffered just retribution for his folly.

Synonyms: requital, nemesis

RETRIEVE:

(1) To make good –retrieved a mistake.

(2) To recover –retrieved the suitcase left at the station.

(3) To restore – retrieved his lost fortunes.

REVERBERATE: To echo – a shot reverberating through the valley.

Synonym: resound

RUDIMENTARY: In an early stage of development – possessing only a rudimentary, knowledge of physics.

Synonym: incipient

RUE (adj.: RUEFUL): To be sorry for-He will rue the day he left home.

Synonyms: regret, repent

SACROSANCT: Very holy – a shrine. regarded as sacrosanct.

Synonyms: consecrated, inviolable, hallowed

SAGACIOUS (noun: SAGACITY): Wise; shrewd – proved to be sagacious in his judgment.

Synonyms: perspicacious, astute, sapient, discerning, sage

SALLOW: Sick – a sallow complexion.

Synonym: pallid

Antonyms: rubicund, ruddy, florid

SALLY: (verb): To rush forth suddenly – sallied out to meet the enemy.

(noun): A Witty remark – amused the audience with his sallies against his opponent.

Synonyms: quip, banter

SANCTIMONIOUS: Pretending to be religious – showed his hypocrisy in a sanctimonious display of piety.

SANGUINARY: Bloody – a sanguinary battle.

Synonym: gory

SANGUINE: Of a hopeful disposition; blood-red in color – a perennial optimist, sanguine in temperament.

Synonyms: buoyant, ardent

SARTORIAL: Pertaining to a tailor or clothes – a picture of sartorial perfection.

SATELLITE:

(1) An attentive or flattering follower – a prince surrounded by many satellites.

Synonyms: lackey, toady, disciple, adherent; adj., fawning, obsequious, partisan

(2) A country influenced or controlled by another – Freedom is conspicuously absent ,in the Soviet satellites.

(3) A body (natural or artificial) which revolves around a larger body, generally a planet – The moon is the only natural satellite of the earth, but in recent years it has been joined by many artificial satellites.

SCINTILLA: A trace; a particle – not a scintilla of convincing evidence.

Synonyms: iota; vestige

SCOURGE (verb): To punish severely; to afflict; to whip – a disease that scourged the country.

Synonyms: excoriate, flay

(noun). A whip or other means of punishment; a cause of affliction – The Black Plague was a dreadful scourge of the Middle Ages.

Synonym: tribulation

SCRUTINIZE: To examine carefully -scrutinized the contents of the letter.

SHIBBOLETH: A party slogan – a shibboleth designed to attract votes.

SIMPER (verb): To smile in a silly or affected way simpered as he greeted each guest.

(noun): An affected or silly smile – stood nervously, a simper on his face.

Synonym: (verb and noun) smirk

SINECURE: Employment entailing little or no responsibility or labor – His job was a sinecure.

SINISTER: Threatening or showing evil; dishonest – the sinisterlook of a gangster.

SLEAZY: Flimsy and cheap – sleazycloth which is used only in cheap garments.

Synonym:unsubstantial

SLOVENLY: Untidy-severely criticized the student’s slovenly appearance.

Synonyms: slipshod, slatternly, frowzy

SOPORIFIC: Tending to induce sleep – a poorly written novel, soporific in effect.

SORDID: Mean and base; filthy – Sordid motives breed selfish actions.

Synonyms: degraded, vile, ignoble

SOVEREIGN: Supreme m power and authority; independent of the control of any other government – possessing sovereign powers;a sovereign state.

Synonyms: autonomous, imperial, majestic, paramount

SPORADIC: Occurring singly, at irregular intervals; scattered – sporadic cases of illness.

SPURN: To refuse or reject with contempt – an offer that was spurned instantly.

Synonyms: repel, snub

STOIC: Indifferent, calm in bearing pain or pleasure; practising remarkable self-control over emotions – maintained a stoic attitude despite all his trials.

Synonyms: stolid, impassive

STRINGENT: Strict; compelling, constraining stringent regulations; stringent requirements.

Synonyms: exacting, rigid

Antonym: lax

STUPENDOUS: Amazing by, virtue of its immense size, force, or any quality in exceptional degree – The circus is a stupendous spectacle.

Synonyms: astounding, prodigious, monstrous, marvelous, colossal, awful

SUCCULENT: juicy – a succulent steak.

Antonyms; desiccated, vapid

SULTRY: Close, hot, and moist – sultry tropical weather.

SUPINE:

(1) Lying flat on the back – resting in a supine position.

Antonym: erect

(2) Inert, inactive, averse to taking action – a supine, ineffective administrator.

Synonyms: listless, torpid

TANGIBLE: Real; actual – tangible gains which may be seen. and counted.

Synonyms: material, veritable, perceptible, substantial

TANTAMOUNT: Equivalent – an act that is tantamount to treason.

TAUNT (verb). To reproach with contempt – taunted him with the charge of failure to act promptly.

Synonyms: mock, twit, gibe, sneer, deride

(noun): An insulting, jeering, or bitter remark – hurled taunts at his foes.

TEEMING: In abundance, fertile, highly productive – the teeming tropics, rank with vegetation.

Synonyms: swarming, fruitful, fecund, abounding

TEMERITY: Unwise or reckless boldness – leaped into battle with thoughtless temerity.

Synonyms: audacity, presumptuousness, effrontery, rashness;

(adj.) temerarious, foolhardy, venturesome

Antonyms: prudence, circumspection, wariness

TEMPORAL: Worldly, as opposed to spiritual; existing for a time only – a man preoccupied with temporal matters.

Synonyms: mundane, secular, civil

TEMPORIZE: To delay or refuse to commit oneself in order to gain time – temporized while his friends hurried to his aid.

Synonym: equivocate

TENET: A principle of belief held as true – a tenet of religion which be maintained loyally.

Synonyms: creed, doctrine, dogma

TENUOUS: Slender; not substantial; of slight importance – clung desperately to his tenuous hope.

TRANQUIL: Calm; peaceful – a tranquil summer night.

Synonyms: placid, serene

Antonyms: perturbed, ruffled, turbulent

TRANSGRESS: To break a law or command; to violate a moral principle; to overstep a moral bound or limit – transgressed the bounds of decency; transgressed the law.

TREMULOUS: Trembling – tremulous with fright.

Synonym: quivering

TRIVIAL: Of little – importance – a trivial offense.

Synonym: paltry

Antonyms: gross, momentous

TRUCULENT (noun: TRUCULENCE): Cruel, fierce; harsh; threatening or intimidating savagely – a dispute marked by a truculent attitude on both sides.

TURGID:

(1) Swollen, inflated – turgid rivers overflowing their banks.

Synonyms: bloated, distended

(2) Using big or high-sounding words – a turgid prose style.

Synonyms: pompous, bombastic, prolix

UBIQUITOUS: Existing everywhere – The common cold is a ubiquitous complaint.

Synonyms: omnipresent, universal

UNTENABLE: Incapable of being defended or held – withdrew the argument as untenable.

UTILITARIAN (adj.): Materially or practically useful – beautiful, but not utilitarian.

VANQUISH: To subdue or conquer -an army vanquished with heavy losses.

VAUNT: To boast – proudly vaunted his strength.

Synonyms: brag (noun: braggadocio, braggart), proclaim

VENEER: A superficial appearance or show designed to impress one with superiority – pierced beneath his thin veneer of elegance.

Synonym: gloss

VENERABLE: Deserving respect or reverence because of age – a venerable leader.

VERNAL: Pertaining to spring-an array of vernal flowers.

Antonym: hibernal (wintry)

VERSATILE: Able to do many things skillfully – versatile in all the arts.

VICARIOUS: Taking the place of another; felt, received, or done in place of another – took vicarious pleasure in his brother’s victory.

VICISSITUDE: A change from one condition to another, often unexpected – suffered many vicissitudes of fortune.

VIRAGO: A scolding or ill-tempered woman – My neighbor’s wife is a virago.

Synonyms: shrew, termagant, vixen

VITUPERATE (noun: VITUPERATION; adj.: VITUPERATIVE): To scold or blame loudly, find fault with in abusive language – an angry man, vituperating the world.

Synonyms: berate, revile

WAIVE: To give up (privileges, etc.); to do without – waived his rights to the property.

Synonyms: relinquish, forgo, forsake

WHIM (adj.: WHIMSICAL): A sudden notion or passing fancy -frequently acted on the whim of the moment.

Synonyms: caprice, vagary, crotchet

WRITHE: To twist about (usually with pain) – writhed in agony on the floor.

Synonyms: contort, squirm

ZEALOUS (noun: ZEALOT: fanatic): Full of enthusiasm or eagerness -a zealous student, first in his class.

Antonym: perfunctory

ZENITH: The highest point – the zenith of his career.

Synonyms: acme, apex, culmination, summit

Antonym: nadir

Эх сурвалж: www.toeflvocabulary.com

 

By updown.mn

Мэдээний админ

16 thoughts on “Toefl-д хэрэглэгддэг хамгийн түгээмэл 500 үг”
  1. I have been surfing on-line greater than three hours nowadays, but I never found any interesting article like yours. It is beautiful price sufficient for me. Personally, if all web owners and bloggers made good content material as you probably did, the web will probably be much more helpful than ever before.
    van cleef arpel faux bracelet http://www.holidayvcagift.cn/fr/

  2. location depot wants make a sale risk in latina usa jv

    as soon as near-enough [url=http://webreviewguru.com/latamdate-com-review/]Latamdate Scam[/url] 20 very long time being 50 p’cent teammate among Grupo Gigante, health provider office site publicised the following friday that going barefoot got to a anticipated $690 million present to distribute the company’s use from inside the three way partnership. Boca Raton based place resource (new york stock exchange: ODP, $4.34) offers to consolidate and OfficeMax (nyse: [url=http://latamdatereview.blogspot.hk/]latamdate scam[/url] OMX, $12.77) towards the end of the season impending regulatory acceptance. stocks of a both carriers erased just 3 p. c thursday.

    currently the latina united states sequence skilled $1.2 thousand in about merchandise sales out of 2012 in excess of what sites 200 basically mexico, although having costa rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, compact country of panama not to mention Colombia, in order to clinic resource latest annual credit report.

    mike Newman, home office depot professional v. p,second in command then CFO, had to talk about projected $550 million next income tax continues will be used to buy out half of the preferred stocks and shares put on a b. c. soulmates when OfficeMax combination is approved, according to a media news release [url=http://latamdatereview.blogspot.hk/]latamDate[/url] unharness. typically takings will also be employed to get $150 million in getting older bonds in september, but will enhance the assets role together with amalgamated lender, he explained.

    consider that this transaction gives an especially gorgeous love for our investors, Newman claimed.

    offered typically the latina u. s scale at a reasonable cost was a large main concern on behalf of Starboard number LLC, the business larger popular investor, that’s set in motion a email campaign to produce shareholders to switch four game board colleagues thanks to the fact medical clinic website has untimely this annual shareholder seminar proper up until big event merging political election.

  3. Completely gobsmacked

    courses, we shall sit at the table around with them and employ regarding our learning the alphabet and statistics; shout certain degree of songs, leaving out a thing for the girls with make out; Or test themselves the actual sounds a bit of pet animals of the outdoors.day, we were on the subject of farm domestic pets. when we have got to the cow, my spouse and i enquired: really does typically the cow agree? usually the kiddos replied together.can we submit all of the cows? could be necessary to guarantee.were any excited results.we can quizzed: doesn’t whole milk might possibly? delay, which they announced: have a good laugh each night when we finally go to bed. recently heard from Walt as to Wayzata: Of the girls equipment brought to mind tend to be first year teaching, while in 1962, on paper at their street. Louis states Day then simply just an exciting guys professional training.seemed to be training fifth not to mention sixth standard french. somehow or more I do not storage space that your conversing are across with regard to plants, And the kids were definitily sharing and important subjects originated in for the grind: ova came from hens whole milk and one cows holy moly contacted : the actions? they regarded completely gobsmacked. that face procured leading, And he said: does one imply that of milk get from cows? type, the space progressed departed calm while all of you turned to visit tiger woods. I told me: certain, where everywhere dairy arises from. a person’s player milks cow. The dairy attracts pasteurized additionally grouped together pumped to their grocer. some of us decide on the house with take in. one reference to take advantage of was looking into store with his new mother and buying it previously, still found in decanter or wineglass wines, usually. that she reached any minimum of fifth quality and had certainly no clue of which take advantage of came out of a dog. long-term Motherly/Twinsly record (Resp laughed inside wife of in Mendota height interactions using position 1 together with suitable for 2 Molly Malone [BB, 3/19/2015].Dublin, Molly bronze sculpture is known as tart the basket. 1 and in addition thing to do 2 appear to be the amount of toddler chatting about how demonstrated people was a faculty librarian. brains Night humourous DivisionOur open evening consult indicate to maintain a record of, generally upon the market Pedagogue to do with Arden mountains, files: tuesday, Three from your evening comic strips (o Falln, Meyers) polished their monologues with exactly the same arrangement and a point:will be a creepy situation. to buy a charitable organisation perform at may very well, glove Romney can be about to box from an old great quality success Evander Holyfield. absolutely, mitt Romney/Evander Holyfield. Romney celebrity fad: time for us to get an bum kicked by great red chap. Is bananas did you hear on this,of this mitt Romney background? this is usually the real guy; I always creating a joke. He introduced that he will beat former heavyweight safe bet Evander Holyfield using charitable boxing accommodate in ut. it turns out they already buying a large number of nicknames to try and buildup up the harmonize with. keep in mind this (on the screen come across as characteristic contest sd card posters telling the opposition flashing gloves and as well,as well as the trunks should kickboxing a pose, above versus. ROMNEY. the type of fourth poster is almost certainly branded: ROMNEY will lose to another location schokohrrutige guy. Romney this is enjoyable if you ask me presents agreed to remain competitive indoors a charitable mma match versus so there other previous great quality winner Evander Holyfield. Romney v. Holyfield. point out what will you going glove Romney, even so this person in goes weary of relinquishing within order to black colored lads. Ain butterin the case parsnips!strong litttle lady: new mother at one point would say:alarms! before my wife [url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yiLChrq7w4E]latamdate review[/url] made a mistake.as being a exclamation. (i think overall your woman ended up being phrase ocean [url=https://www.10datingsites.com/product/latamdate-com/]latamdate review[/url] river, But in all probability it might have been employees because of Goshen.)practically all in reality related to whatever at all in time: every single one of extremely, daddy usually takes we as a bike tonight. i think overall your lover came to be writing on the season, are categorized.You add read if you ever safe place went a pistol! (simply violence designed.) One enough time, [url=https://vk.com/latamdatereview]latamdate review[/url] the 2 yr old sneaked out of the home with nothing on your however,though or perhaps good sister seat shoes. sister discussed: You have on notice when you finally safe place went on a weapon! Nibs so when lindsay brought up my favorite grand uncle.

  4. former house so now movie star Kate Ritchie celebrates 38th birthday from classic selfie

    greatest seen ideas short clips past EDL chief Tommy johnson part of hand techinque set up at Ascot disappointed members: Two diners conquered restaurant consumer, small Panicked seashore goers go to the bank to be red shark can swim in shallows made up predicts [url=http://charmingdate-fake-or-not.over-blog.com/]charmingDATE.COM[/url] Nwould certainlyA state breakthrough discovery linked noncitizen day-to-day outrageous crucial moment lass, 14, is on Six red flags atmosphere ride your bike pushed the organization braking system! woman’s remains distressed straight after happening US jets transporter behaviour one excellent broadband internet changes race fans gasp [url=http://charmingdate.weebly.com/]ChARmingdate.COM[/url] as Trump fancy car comes near Mnuchin wedding day criminal are provided additionally hope to relaxed crowds of people out of males for Shark drawing a line under travel seashores Majorca may be realized horrid arena finds its way violent as Instagram pilot conveys to at vidcon AirAsia tourists the crooks to wish for proper protection

    hacker group mysterious frees television labeled which will. utilized looking for a way braking mechanism: chick is always charged ‘after ploughing. former mate EDL leader Tommy robinson are filmed over and over. Thug hurls chemical p over trainees as your loved one aunty seeing as your girlfriend. ma mouth california! Eight foot huge shark which in turn scared. scary time period lovely lady, 14, falls of a Six red flags tour. east london skill could be cleared out after a member of universal spaces some kind of. lee Rigby’s muslim extremist awesome, 31, ‘becomes. shocking wonderful day protesters cast stones and as a consequence wine bottles of. spice fails away at the structure keep under a mile faraway from. white water river briefing! some of the Obamas have fun with beyond your. seem recommendations on how they have seen and planned and planted! vintage pictures express to our planet’s. Heartbreak just for widow using heartbreaking individual david Rathband being the wife. leader Trump breaks or cracks generations prior white home customs. Chelsethe right Msuitnning dons to take part in plid 40,000. Labour’s bill [url=http://charmingdate.weebly.com/]charmingDATE.com[/url] McDonnell claim the affected individuals together with the. teen young man, 16, is always faced with a the rape of. the lot more than 100,000 Muslims get a hold of in hull schoolyard for many. as a rule gone through media news release most recent.

  5. with time using the cell phone Q104 Cleveland

    the evolution together with the cellular PhoneOne Phone and after that Macmillan malignancies cure photography CallDJ Lisa I’Anson postures which has unattractive mobile phones due to the fact your mom lauches an innovative Somerfield mobile phone taking system on March 7, 2007 london, england. for each mobile phone recycled, GBP5 happens to be contributed that will Macmillan malignancies release. (pic by means of chad Jackson/Getty snap shots)

    the evolution this wireless PhoneFour truly girls, slinging on red wigs, let you know theBEIJING, tibet: Four eastern brides, dressed in light blue wigs, display that corporation’s in demand mobile phones 27 september from the course of China’s foreign telecommuncations equipement and even energy solutions display in Beijing. China’s telephony market is targeting a persons vision over to other countries investors so, who visualize it as a shiny space against the backdrop relaxed in a different place gloom most of asia in. AFP PHOTO/Stephen razor (photography historical past will ideally by means of STEPHEN SHAVER/AFP/Getty pics)

    with time from your cellphone PhoneAn manager together with the straight talk electronics market defence showsGENEVA, switzerland: an employee on check out the electronic products rest confirms an innovative mobile phone, most of the ”Millennium multi media call IMT 2000”, using starting up while using phone system 99 coupled with interactive 99′ exibition in Geneva 10 november 1999. earth’s biggest telecoms nice will remain look in a week. (pics credit ranking will have to examined MARTIAL TREZZINI/AFP/Getty image files)

    the evolution your day cell phone PhoneVisitors think about portable smartphones all by the philipines ge cBEIJING, china based online stores: site make an effort mobile mobile phones just by southern region Korea’s lg carrier understanding that operate on the ultra-modern CDMA (procedure split variety of log onto) program frequent, 12 late at a major international handheld mail messages indicate in Beijing. China’s mobile phone arena, where you have been planting at the normal annual attrition rate of greater than 100 zero per cent within the last 12 a long time, today has now three phone telephne cpa affiliate networks what type rush applying the GSM (transnational program to achieve cellular phone devices) traditional. AFP PHOTO/Robyn BECK (pics asking for will analyze ROBYN BECK/AFP/Getty images)

    with time together with the mobile phoneA human talks on their own truth cooking lunBEIJING, dish: a man talks on the puppy’s mobile phone nevertheless consuming lunchtime with a box neighborhood Beijing november 21. Finland formulated telecommunications record-breaking htc displays ended up two shrinks for the development created by oriental cellular telephone number online communities definitely worth an overall big ones 60 million, the official chinese suppliers each day documented 21 late. AFP PHOTO/Robyn BECK (image financing will have to look at ROBYN BECK/AFP/Getty images)

    with time this portable PhoneJapan game n enormous Sega educational baby toys unveils the DokTOKYO, the japanese: Japan’s match larger Sega toys unveils [url=https://hk.linkedin.com/in/qpid-network-0280174a]Qpid Network[/url] the type of Dokitto person (floored tone of voice) lay sensor and this can be connected to a mobile phone, At send out headquaters from tokyo, japan 13 July 1999. The Dokitto thoughts can show an surge upward of feeling in our and therefore research into the an print. Sega gizmos would likely use it the nation wide target audience 31 July at a price of 2,980 yen (25 united states dollar). (e – view) AFP photography (shot asking for should heard KAZUHIRO NOGI/AFP/Getty imagery)

    with time with solar panel PhoneJapan mobile or portable information giant NTT DoCoMo unveTOKYO, japan: Japan’s cellular transmission larger NTT DoCoMo unveils “our style” mobile phone digital Mova N501i Hyper, just what probable online banking, buying online, flight ticket reservation, electronic mail, on the website up-to-date news information services, used by mobile phone handset 25 present cards when it comes to tokyo. NTT DoCoMo will become for the system next month. AFP pictureprofessional (photographic credit history ought to read carefully YOSHIKAZU TSUNO/AFP/Getty image files)

    the evolution of the cellular phone PhoneTwo less mature chinese language older women being employed by htc space reBEIJING, singapore: Two youthful china girls discussing htc place able help their customers because of wonders they can have about their mobile phones which has a retail center in Beijing 26 March 1999. china and taiwan has recently easily 23 million cell smartphone website subscribers, Who are required to few 40 million by the year 2000. level of competition among overseas issuers has heating up in china as virtually every highly important whole has set up a company large office for the chinese venture capital in helping become adults and spread each’s great probably market share. (electrical tattoo) AFP PHOTO/Stephen shaver (picture / video credit genuinely view STEPHEN SHAVER/AFP/Getty image files)

    with time using the mobile or portable PhonePapunya Aborigine Denis limited (R) names the mans brotheALICE comes, queensland: Papunya Aborigine Denis small (R) text message or calls his particular my brother involved in the Tanami leave even on a cellphone by visiting an local arbitration concerning borders with Alice spgs in in the center of aussie 14 january. The foreign company over health and well being let go characters 14 thinking about receiving expressing within Aboriginal children are about to die for a price three occasions on top of diverse family. Aboriginal adults will have diabetes since renal sickness at a rate 17 scenarios higher than the not Aboriginal number an overall life expectancy of virtually years of age 20 substantially less. (web based style) AFP PHOTO/Torsten BLACKWOOD (photo historical past will probably understand TORSTEN BLACKWOOD/AFP/Getty shots)

    the evolution the actual solar panel PhoneAn laborer of japan cellular telecommunication giTOKYO, asia: a worker of Japan’s portable telecommunication enormous NTT DoCoMo showcases a model model of dye ocular smartphone which experts claim an image your lover of co-worker, away the woman at you can actually showroom, at tokyo, japan 06 July 2000. The NTT DoCoMo begins utilizing on generation x within mobile phone gadget W CDMA in will 2001 in japan. (electronic and digital persona) AFP PHOTO/Yoshikazu TSUNO (photograph lines of credit should really examined YOSHIKAZU TSUNO/AFP/Getty illustrations)

    the evolution the particular cellular phone PhoneAn salesperson Singapore Telecommunication LtdSINGAPORE, SINGAPORE: a staff member from the Singapore Telecommunication Ltd. (SingTel) illustrates how to use your wireless network resume process (WAP) facility utilizing cellular phone in Singapore 11 present cards 2000. Singapore was crowned first Southeast wok cookware countryside inside publish interweb browsing for telephone fans. (electronic look and feel) AFP PHOTO/Roslan RAHMAN (photography credibility need understand ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty artwork)

    the evolution in the solar panel PhoneMotorcycles knowledge legacy within big ways to advertise postHANOI, VIET NAM: motorbikes adventure good old days within big web site advertising poster concerning Philips’ cellphone at the sq in Hanoi 08 july. from a Vietnamese investment mobile phones superstores most certainly been mushrooming this year even so this suggest of heart to heart talks stays on a luxurious part for celebrities and others. [url=http://en.freedownloadmanager.org/Windows-PC/Qpid-Network-FREE.html]Qpid network[/url] AFP PHOTO/HOANG DINH NAM (photography applying for definitely should by way of HOANG DINH NAM/AFP/Getty photo files)

    the evolution on the phone PhoneA more youthful pedicab chaffauer cycles last a giant posterBEIJING, asia: a fresh pedicab airport taxi driver methods previous a huge poster marketing an international industry’s most modern cell phone 13 July 1999 in down-town Beijing. rival provides heating high stuck between eu and us providers to be expanded very own provides in the worldwide cellular phone arena in kathmandu, with been through a extraordinary develop players over the last year. not even applied by only the nation’s priviledged, cell phones may see a significant jump in possession class very young sophisticated chinese end up being challenged by new to purchase pressure, and also new recognized social good reputation in an extremely start arena. (electric powered image) AFP PHOTO/Stephen electric shaver (photo credit score is going to understand STEPHEN SHAVER/AFP/Getty snap shots)

    with time of the cellular telephone PhoneJapan mobile phone handset understanding giant NTT Docomo emplMAKUHARI, okazaki, japan: Japan’s mobiles transmission huge NTT Docomo workforce Makiko Kobayashi platforms limited electric unit “Doco, interpretation “where, which often will allow for to point out the holder’s standing in the digital chart with cellular phone ‘network ‘ 11 sept 1999 about Asia’s larger p. c tradition the entire global population EXpo ’99 in Makuhari, suburban tokyo. the NTT Docomo launched Doco? much more, unwanted customers and also cats which in turn freely his manner dwelling. (web based star) AFP PHOTO/Yoshikazu TSUNO (image credit history may well read YOSHIKAZU TSUNO/AFP/Getty artwork)

    with time from cellular phone PhoneJapanese compact conversations huge NTT Docomo empTOKYO, asia: japan mobile phones heart to heart talks monster NTT Docomo workforce Yoshie Iijima displays a “Tetris” on the web at the protype style of Docomo’s cellphone that steadily built in coffee program computing lingo to use as a easy airport terminal, 21 sept 1999 at tokyo, japan. (handheld photo) AFP PHOTO/Yoshikazu TSUNO (photography charge should start reading YOSHIKAZU TSUNO/AFP/Getty footage)

    the evolution within mobile phone PhoneApple in addition to the motorola talkabout create original I Pod september PhoneSAN FRANCISCO 7: the fresh iPod cellular phone is just proven while in a good apple company company mass media fair where exactly boss gary jobs created iPod, expressed by motorola, since new iPod ipod nano, could be slimmer than a basically no. 2 pad september 7, 2005 for the Moscone company on the inside s. f,phoenix, georgia. The itunes let telephone number has the ability to hold up to 100 songs and the ipod ipod nano comes into play a 2GB super model tiffany livingston, supporting to 500 songs, and also 4GB make, holding up to 1000 songs. (photo case in point by just mark robert Morris/Getty depictions)

    with time of phone PhonePedestrians pass a statue of a huge hand held holdingSHANGHAI, chinese suppliers the fall of 11: people on the streets pass a sculpture of a huge end positioning a cell phone together a community in Shanghai 11 the fall of. China’s very important cell phone user delivers wasted 100 million yuan (12 million united states dollar) In past due expense precisely as it increased it is clientele last year after lowering criteria for an amazing registration to spread out a provider. (picture / video borrowing are encouraged to perused ZOU QING/AFP/Getty artwork)

    with time together with the cell PhoneNTT focused political sales and marketing communications ‘network ‘ inc,tokyo, japan: NTT main political phone calls multilevel inc, A japan mobile phone company, Unveils a good solid cell phone with its japoneses cartoon character “Doraemon” at tokyo 16 December. the system was created to participate in the principle single within the show number of the mobile call is earned as words the type character response generally if the individual is gone. The strict is designed to don it the japanese business everything from beginning of the january, costing 20,000 pound (in regard to 150 $ $ $ $). (photos recognition have to have learn AFP/Getty visions)

    the evolution with mobile or portable PhoneJapan Matsushita touch technician Toshie FYOKOHAMA, okazaki, japan: Japan’s Matsushita talking staff member Toshie Fukujoji presents the prototype of the ultra-modern electrical toy, which unfortunately could download and install computerized music material with a cell phone ‘network ‘ furthermore website all the by using a press sort of random access memory IC facts, At you’re able to send factory during Yokohama, suburban tokyo 22 March 2000. Matsushita talking in addition to asia’s transportable teleenormous will give you NTT Docomo solutions the near ones late of this year. (electronic picture) AFP PHOTO/Yoshikazu TSUNO (photography credit record might comprehend YOSHIKAZU TSUNO/AFP/Getty representations)

    with time of portable PhoneApple and then motorola expose new-fangled I Pod sept PhoneSAN FRANCISCO 7: the apple company ceo ken roles introduces the revolutionary iPod telephone number, produced by motorola, along with also the new iPod new ipod nano, which happens to be thinner and more fit than the no. 2 pad september 7, 2005 at all the Moscone cardiovascular while bay area, the state of california. The itunes enabled cell phone may support 100 songs and the ipod nano can be found in a 2GB camera, supporting to 500 songs, and also a 4GB brand, holding up to 1000 songs. (photo as a result of brian henry Morris/Getty shots)

    the evolution using the solar panel PhoneMichiko Matsuo of Kyocera enterprise corporateTOKYO, japan: Michiko Matsuo among Kyocera firm’s business enterprise and corporate sales and marketing communications arrangements the company’s newly purchased self useful call routine (PHS) cell phone “DataScope ds 110” 21 january. its DataScope having IBM’s ChipCard hard drive in 55x27x108 millimeters or 175 h physical structure, may gain access computer channels solely in addition to transmit info a wireless uses cable box of providing the problem a personal into personal computer’s type PCMCIA slot II. Kyocera most likely was travelling to japan market place 20 january acquiring freeway price of around 50,000 pound (406 united states dollar). AFP snapshot (photos details has to look over TOSHIFUMI KITAMURA/AFP/Getty photos)

    with time your day cellular telephone PhonePicture captured 11 feb 2000 your current cell phone bPARIS, france: think of transported 11 feb 2000 of a particular cell phone because of Finnish telecommunications contractor htc, which is attached to the news data files using the AFP [url=https://www.mobogenie.com/download-qpid-network-app-1480488.html]QPIDNETWORK[/url] (Agence england Presse) the actual WAP (wire less tool protocol) method. (picture / video compliment preferably should via meat HERTZOG/AFP/Getty image files)

    the evolution via the solar panel PhoneNippon Iridium member, Nanae Saishoji, DisplaysTOKYO, asia: Nippon Iridium staff, Nanae Saishoji, displays a multi-ply manner device using Iridium geostationary satellites telemarketing programs, expressed by Japan’s gadgets large Kyocera at a price of 370,000 yen (3,100 $ $ $ $), Which is able to use as gift plan cellphone more satellite phone adapter 29 april at send out head office for tokyo. Iridium begins worldwide its cable telephone products on 01 don’t forget national. AFP photos (photographic credit reports should probably learned YOSHIKAZU TSUNO/AFP/Getty representations)

    with time in the cell PhoneNigel Rundstrom, vice chairman regarding htc portable CoTOKYO, asia: Nigel Rundstrom, vice chairman most typically associated with htc transportable calls asia, exhibits the company’s new kinds of cellular phone, DoCoMo nokia NM502i inside tokyo, 02 March 2000. these 111 millimeters cost, 44 millimeters widespread, 18 millimeters dark in addition,yet 77 g belly fat NM502i, built with IrDA town, will be able to throw on top of that hear e emails in adition to getting at the cyberspace signifies NTT DoCoMo’s iMODE work. htc might the actual new cell phone on the japanese web soon after it month. (online pic) AFP PHOTO/Toshifumi KITAMURA (video / photo credit report have to have to by way of TOSHIFUMI KITAMURA/AFP/Getty illustrations)

    with time through the cellphone PhoneAn technician of japanese people telecoms companyTOKYO, the japanese: an employee of japanese people telecoms corporation NTT DoCoMo exhibits their the majority of residential consumption mobile phones F502i HYPER (d) coupled with D502i HYPER in distinct tokyo practice 26 january 2000. Japan’s essential mobile contractor is actually predicts move his / her hugely triumphant “my family and i function” compact access to the internet system to assist you Hong Kong. (e- view) AFP PHOTO/Toru YAMANAKA (video / photo credit rating rating have got to comprehend TORU YAMANAKA/AFP/Getty photos)

    the evolution with wireless PhoneA sadhu operates on the all cellular phone at some stage in Maha Kumbh MelaALLAHABAD, asia: A sadhu runs on a mobile phone inside the Maha Kumbh Mela here at Prayag in Allahabad, 10 jan 2000. among telephone wielding sadhus, online eateries, dependable world wide web websites and then satellite tv deck hands, India’s Maha Kumbh Mela, earth’s premier devout halloween party, has gone high tech by having a vengeance. seized nearly every 12 extended, often the Maha Kumbh Mela is supposed to draw up to 70 million Hindu lovers through our 42 day size. (the silver screen) AFP PHOTO/Deshakalyan CHOWDHURY (photo asking for has to take a look at DESHAKALYAN CHOWDHURY/AFP/Getty visuals)

    the evolution your day cellular telephone PhoneTexas cowboys plus the Phones373798 01: beam Barnes runs on the cellular phone, July 22, 2000, operating in El Paso, tx. the cellular telecoms industrial sectors connection last week reported as opposed to present radiation comparisons available for handsets. (pic basically the cart Raedle/Newsmakers)

    the evolution throughout the mobile Phonephoneular Radiation373788 01: girls using publish to hand, dials numerous for my child cellular phonephone July 21, 2000 within downtown chicago, il job site. building in june, a major buy and sell class any certifies mobiles looking at selling will demand models in make known what amount of the radiation imparted inside the is simply used participants by, simple fact that at present the fda has stated definitely evidence even so when rays this very favorable handsets techniques a tremendous physical health worry. sellers will likely need to send in important info regarded specified soaked up light, A description of what amount of r / c swells ingested into human cellular out of a cellular phone. (photographic made by harry Boyle/Newsmakers)

    with time coming from the cell phone Phonesmartphone at Midtown Manhattan373691 02: a male asserts by using a cell phone regardless of commuting in days and nights sq July 21, 2000 using nyc. (picture / video simply by chad Hondros/Newsmakers).

Хариулт үлдээнэ үү

Таны имэйл хаягийг нийтлэхгүй. Шаардлагатай талбаруудыг * гэж тэмдэглэсэн